Covered wagons brought a wave of migration to northern Illinois in the mid-1830s. On April 1, 1834, the first permanent white settlers, Joseph McCarthy and two assistants, paddled up the Fox River. The vicinity was known as Waubonsie's Village at that time. They built a log cabin, a dam across the Fox, and eventually a sawmill. The village had about 400 Native Americans who bartered fish for bread and tobacco. For almost 175 years now, growth has been steady and sure, and the city of Aurora is the second-largest metropolitan area in Illinois. Aurora is home to honorable civic institutions, excellent education, and a multicultural and energetic population.